The Government of Canada noted that « THE results of CUSMA preserve key elements of long-term trade relations and contain new and updated provisions to address 21st century trade issues and foster opportunities. » On April 24, 2020, U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer formally announced to Congress that the new trade agreement is expected to come into effect on July 1, 2020, and he also informed Canada and Mexico.   In order to facilitate the increase in cross-border trade, the United States has reached an agreement with Mexico and Canada to increase the de minimis value. For the first time in decades, Canada will increase its de minimis level from $20 ($15.38) to $40 ($30.77) for taxes. Canada will also offer duty-free shipments of up to 150 $US ($115.38). Mexico will continue to provide $50 de minimis exemptions and will also offer duty-free shipments of up to $117. Shipping rates to this level would be achieved with minimum formal entry procedures, which would allow more businesses, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises, to be part of cross-border trade. Canada will also allow the importer to pay taxes 90 days after the importer enters. On December 19, 2019, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the USMCA with multiparty support with 385 votes (Democracy 193, Republican 192) to 41 (Democracy 38, Republican 2, Independent 1).  On January 16, 2020, the U.S.
Senate passed the trade agreement by 89 votes (Democrats 38, Republicans 51) to 10 (Democracy 8, Republican 1, Independent 1) and the bill was forwarded to the White House for the signature of Donald Trump.  On January 29, 2020, Trump signed the agreement (Public Law No: 116-113).  NAFTA has been formally amended, but not the 1989 Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, which is only « suspended. »  The agreement is described differently by each signatory – in the United States, it is called the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA);   in Canada, it is officially known as the Canada-U.S.-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA) in English and the Canada-U.S.-Mexico Agreement (ACEUM) in French;  and in Mexico, tratado is called tratado between México, Estados Unidos y Canadé (T-MEC).   The agreement is sometimes referred to as « New NAFTA » with respect to the previous trilateral agreement for the successor, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). When NAFTA negotiations began in 1991, the goal for all three countries was to integrate Mexico into the developed, high-income economies of the United States and Canada. The hope was that freer trade would bring stronger and more stable economic growth to Mexico by providing new jobs and opportunities for its growing workforce and discouraging illegal immigration. For the United States and Canada, Mexico has been seen as both a promising export market and a less expensive investment site that can improve the competitiveness of U.S. and Canadian businesses.
Contact the import-specialist team at their centre of excellence assigned to www.cbp.gov/trade/centers-excellence-and-expertise-information/cee-directory Edward Alden of CFR says the fear of trade agreements has increased because wages have not kept pace with labour productivity, while income inequality has increased.