Why Are International Agreements On E-Waste Difficult To Manage

The differences are due to the waste streams contained in the legislation on waste of electrical and electronic equipment: the European directive is the most comprehensive legislation on waste of electrical and electronic equipment, since it includes electronic products (computers. B, monitors, televisions, etc.), but also such household appliances. B than brown and white products. A similar legislative approach has been developed by Japan, including household appliances, large and small, in its national legislation on electrical waste. Unlike to date, only electronic products in the U.S. and Canada are included in electronic denudation initiatives. In addition, the use of hazardous substances in electrical and EEA products is limited by the Dangerous Substances Restrictions Directive or the revision of the 2011/65/EU Directive, which promotes environmentally friendly alternative materials in the manufacture and design of electrical and finished products across the EU. Another point of differentiation between national systems is the adoption of the Basel Convention (UNEP, 1992) on the control of cross-border movements of hazardous waste (such as electrical waste and used electronics): it has an impact on the links between the different national systems of international waste transshipment [26-27]. The adoption of this convention imposes stricter rules for the international handling of these waste streams. The national systems in which the Basel Convention is active are « interconnected » because it establishes strict rules for international waste transfers. This theme is a critical topic in the management of WeEE, since it is about environmental, economic, but also social impacts. The composition of electrical waste is varied and contains more than 1,000 toxic and non-toxic substances.5 Technological advances in electrical and electronic equipment are so rapid that new products are rapidly replacing existing models or making certain electronic devices redundant, useless or unusable, creating a constant source of electrical waste generation.

According to Mario and Casey, the physical composition of electrical waste can be divided into two types, as shown in Figure 1.20, electrical waste is refrigerators and appliances such as cables, light bulbs, washing machines, dryers, air conditioners, vacuum cleaners, coffee machines, water heaters, toasters, irons, etc.

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