Benigno Aquino III`s government resumed peace negotiations with in February 2011, after the rebel group announced that it would no longer seek to separate from the Philippines. But the prospects for peace remained inconceivable, as despite the current ceasefire agreement, government forces carried out sporadic attacks against government forces in several areas of Mindanao. The worst of these attacks took place on 18 October 2011, when troops ambushed a military contingent in Al-Barka, Basilan, killing 19 young soldiers and wounding 12 others. Despite mixed efforts to get these rogue leaders to respond to their attacks, the president and the military hierarchy have rejected calls for a pan-war approach to the problem. The ARMM itself is in fact the result of a decades-long peace process between the GPH and the mother group of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF).  The Tripoli agreement between the Philippine government under then-President Ferdinand E. Marcos of 1976 and the MNLF formalized the idea of an autonomous agreement for Muslim Mindanao within the Philippine state`s borders.  Subsequently, the 1987 Philippine Constitution expressly mandated the creation of an autonomous region in the Muslim Mindanao and in 1989 the Philippine Congress passed the organic law creating the ARMM.  In 2001, the same organic law was even amended to strengthen and extend its provisions as part of the final peace agreement between the Philippine government, then President Fidel V. Ramos, and the MNLF. However, after the MNLF officially abandoned the struggle for independence of Muslim Mindanao through the 1976 Tripoli Agreement, the MILF was created by dissident MNLF members to resume its separatist struggle, thus continuing the armed conflict that led to the ongoing peace negotiations.  « Subject to the provisions of the Constitution, the regional government develops a system of economic agreements and trade pacts to generate bulk subsidies for regional investments and improvements in regional economic structures, which are approved by the law promulgated by the Regional Assembly. In accordance with the specific recommendations of the Regional Economic Planning and Development Committee, the regional government can support local authorities in their need for counter-value funds for projects financed abroad. « The parties commit to continue work on the details of the framework agreement under this document and to conclude a comprehensive agreement by the end of the year. The Comprehensive Agreement on Bangsamoro (CAB) is a final peace agreement signed between the Philippine government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front on March 27, 2014 at Manila`s Malaca-ang Palace.  As part of the agreement, Islamic separatists would hand over their firearms to a third party chosen by the rebels and the Philippine government. MilF has agreed to decommission its armed wing, the Islamic Armed Forces of Bangsamoro (BIAF). In exchange, the government would establish an autonomous Bangsamoro. Power-sharing has been a central point for the overhaul of autonomy.
The decisive referendum comes six years after the historic peace deal that ended decades of war between the Philippine government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and six months after President Rodrigo Duterte signed the Bangsamoro Organic Law. Many mindanao residents – Bangsamoro and non-Bangsamoro – have been killed, displaced and impoverished by decades of conflict.  It is clear, therefore, that effective standardization can encompass both the essential first step and the sustained efforts necessary to successfully implement the peace agreement.